Republic of Korea
In the Korean language South Korea is called Thehonmaru (대한민국 listen (i ) . 大韓民國. The reduction of the full name, Hanguk ( 한국 ) or in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the Nam Khan ( 남한 ), is more common. The word Khan refers to the ancient tribal unions Samhan. The word “Korea” comes from the name of the ancient States of Koryo and early Goguryeo. located on the territory of modern South Korea, the DPRK. China and Far East Russia .
The history of South Korea begins with the Soviet-American agreements in the late summer of 1945 about the division of spheres of influence in the Peninsula. Under this agreement the portion of Korea South of the 38th parallel passed under the jurisdiction of the USA, while the North is under the jurisdiction of the Soviet Union.
In the country’s history alternated periods of democratic and authoritarian governance. The civilian governments in the country are numbered from the First Republic of Syngman Rhee to the current Sixth Republic. First Republic. democratic in the beginning, became increasingly autocratic until its end in 1960. The second Republic was based on democratic principles, but was overthrown in less than a year, after which the country has a military government. Third. The fourth and Fifth Republic was nominally considered democratic, but it is believed that they were a continuation of military control. With the establishment of the Sixth Republic, the control of the country back on democratic rails.
Since its founding South Korea has come a long way in the development of their education. the economy and culture. In the 1960s, the country was among the poorest in the region, whereas now it is a developed industrial state. Since 1990s, Korean popular music. television serials and cinema are becoming increasingly popular in other countries around the world, especially in Southeast Asia — a phenomenon known as “Korean wave “.
Policy and state structure
The President is head of state in South Korea. The current President Roh Moo-Hyun. representing the party of Uridan was elected in 2002 and took office in 2003 .
Unicameral National Assembly (299 seats).
243 deputies are elected on majority system with relative majority of votes in single-member districts, 46 — on national party lists with a 5 percent barrier. The parliamentary term of office is 4 years.
Parliamentary elections have been started since 1950. Until 1988 elections were held with significant restrictions of democratic freedoms by the South Korean presidents — 박정희 Park Chung Hee and, later, 전두환 Chun Doo-hwan. In 1988 held its first free parliamentary elections.
Members of Parliament election results in 2004 .
152 — “the Greek uridan” (“Uridan”) (“Open our party”) (liberals)
121 — “Hannara” (“the Party of the great country”) (conservatives)
10 — Democratic labour party
9 — Democratic party
4 — the United liberal Democrats.
The Chairman of the National Assembly Kim Won-Ki ( 김원기. “The Greek origan”).
Geography and climate [ edit | edit wiki text ]
Satellite view in South Korea.
The Republic of Korea occupies the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. 1100 km from the Asian mainland. From the West the Peninsula is washed by the Yellow sea. from the East Japan sea. and to the South the Korea Strait and the East China sea. The total area of the country — 99 617,38 square kilometers .
The landscape is mostly mountainous, plains occupy only 30 % of the territory.
Off the coast of about 3000 Islands, mostly small and uninhabited. The largest island — Jeju .
The climate is monsoon, summer is hot and humid, winters relatively cold and dry. The annual rainfall varies from 1370 millimetres in Seoul to 1,470 millimetres in Busan .
South Korea is divided into 1 special city status ( thakali ), 6 cities of direct subordination with the status equal to provinces ( kwanyako ) and 9 provinces ( that ). They, in turn, are divided into a number of smaller entities, including: city ( si ), County ( Kuhn ), the County ( ku ), large area ( up ), the village ( Maine ), district ( tons ) and the residential areas, the village ( ri ).